To be able to create training program we have to first understand the basic concepts. Training program is created based on the quantitative and qualitative parameters or data information that we receive through the testing.
Working capacity is the general ability of the body to perform the work at the certain intensity and duration using the appropriate energy systems of the body.
Fitness is a specific ability to utilize work capacity of the organism to perform a given task in the default conditions. It can also be defined as the ability of athletes to safely and effectively "bear" with the demands of concrete sports tasks. These specific tasks consist of a larger number of physical and mental stressors that the body needs to adapt.
Athlete's ability depends on the level of athlete’s individual fitness, but also about disruptive factors such as fatigue, lack of motivation or emotional instability. Because of these effects, ability is less stable than fitness.
Training is a process in which the mind and body are preparing to reach a certain level of work capacity and fitness. It is a pedagogical process focused on the formation of knowledge, abilities, skills and habits of athletes. Sometimes it is defined as the preparation of athletes to compete in the competition. Something a more detailed definition is sport training defines itself as a complex pedagogical process that is concrete in organized training and learning. With that the loads that activate biological and psychic are used processes of super compensation and adaptation of the organism. With it is achievable to improve physical, psychological, technical and the tactical quality of athletes manifested by raising competitive results.
Shape implies appropriate body structure, optimal level of motor and functional abilities, technical-tactical skills, theoretical knowledge, intellectual ability, and the corresponding personality traits.
Playing shape represents a state in which physical and psychological components are at the maximum as is level of technical-tactical skills. That’s special biological state characterized by perfect health and optimal physiological status that conditions rapid adaptation and recovery. From a psychological point of view, a playing shape represents a state of heightened excitement and strong motivation. An important factor in playing shape is athletes' ability to tolerate stress. Unlike in just getting in shape a very important component is timing. Athletes should be the best prepared at the time of the most important competitions. Apart from individual playing shape, in team sports should also take into account the team's shape.
Team shape is not only a sum of individual playing shapes, as the team is not just a set of individuals. It can also be said that it is impossible with some tests satisfactorily assess the individual's playing shape or a team shape. The best way to evaluate the playing shape is the coach’s qualitative analysis of the game of individual players and the team in the whole, or the most relevant criterion for the assessment of playing shape is the result of the team at the competition. Team shape has phase character and we can distinguish the phase of entry into the playing shape, the stage of maintaining the playing shape and the phase of temporary loss of playing shape (out of shape). In order for athletes to be optimally trained and to achieve a playing shape (get in shape) exactly when needed in training certain principles should be respected.